. San Francisco: Weiser Books. Also Inna Semetsky. When Cathy was a Little Girl: The Healing Praxis of Tarot Images. International Journal of Childrens Spirituality. 15(1): 59-72. 2010. pp. 59

Miller, Laura (2011). Tantalizing tarot and cute cartomancy in Japan.

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Prizes for evidence of the paranormal

Lvi rejected Court de Gbelins claims about an Egyptian origin of the deck symbols, going back instead to theTarot de Marseille, calling itThe Book of Hermes,claiming it was antique, that it existed before Moses, and that it was in fact a universal key of erudition, philosophy, and magic that could unlockHermeticandCabbalisticconcepts. According to Lvi, An imprisoned person with no other book than the Tarot, if he knew how to use it, could in a few years acquire universal knowledge, and would be able to speak on all subjects with unequaled learning and inexhaustible eloquence.[17]

One of the main criticisms of tarot card reading is its distinct lack of a common reading method among its practitioners. During a tarot card reading there are three mains steps that the reader will use, but how each of these steps is carried out varies significantly between practitioners. The first step is shuffling the cards; the second is laying them out in a particular pattern; and the third, finally, is interpreting the cards. Some readers shuffle the cards themselves, while others get thequerentto do so. Readers also employ several different patterns in which to lay out and turn up the cards. Additionally, a reader may have their own distinct way of interpreting the cards; some tarot cards can have up to ten meanings, and it is up to the reader to use their intuition to interpret them. Some readers believe that they can only get reliable readings from top quality decks and that cheap decks give unreliable readings.[28]There is no scientific evidence for choosing any reading method in particular. Furthermore, since tarot cards are shuffled before each reading, and the reading itself is mostly based on the readers interpretative intuition, it is improbable to get the same reading twice something which could be expected to happen if the cards were a basis for the statement of objective facts. Quoting the skepticJames Randi, For use as a divinatory device, the Tarot deck is dealt out in various patterns and interpreted by a gifted reader. The fact that the deck is not dealt out into the same pattern fifteen minutes later is rationalized by the occultists by claiming that in that short span of time, a persons fortune can change, too. That would seem to call for rather frequent readings if the system is to be of any use whatsoever.[29]

devised a method of tarot divination in 1783,

Next to the usage of tarot cards to divine for others, often for a price, tarot is also used widely as a device for personal advice and spiritual growth.[citation needed]Whereas professional tarot is often seen as ascam(seeCriticism, below), personal usage of tarot cannot be regarded as such, as there would be nothing to gain from scamming oneself. This is an area of tarot divination that has not been studied properly, however.[26]Regardless, persons who use the tarot for personal divination ask question ranging widely from health or economical issues to what would be best for them spiritually.[27]

CS1 errors: missing author or editor

, London: Duckworth, 2002ISBN25

Michael Dummett(1980) suggests that Etteilla was attempting to scoop Court De Gebelin as the author of the occult tarot.[citation needed]Etteilla in fact claims to have been involved with Tarot longer than Court De Gebelin.[2]

Flim-Flam! (Psychics, ESP, Unicorns and other Delusions)

Images from the Grand Etteille Deck

The concept of the cards as a mystical key was extended byliphas Lvi(1810-1875[citation needed]). Lvi (whose given name was Alphonse-Louise Constance) was educated in the seminary of Saint-Sulpice, was ordained as a deacon, but never became a priest. Dummett (1980, pp.114) notes that it is from Levis bookDogme et rituelthat the whole of the modern occultist movement stems. Lvi wrote that an astral light is contained within all of reality,[citation needed]and according to Dummett (1980, pp.118), he claimed to be the first to

a book that systematically tabulated all the possible meanings which each card could bear, when upright and reversed. (Dummett, 1980: pp.110).

created the first Egyptian tarot to be used exclusively for Tarot cartomancy

Tarot is often used in conjunction with the study of theHermetic Qabalah.[20]In these decks all the cards are illustrated in accordance withQabalisticprinciples, most being influenced by theRider-Waitedeck. Its images were drawn by artistPamela Colman Smith, to the instructions of Christian mystic and occultistArthur Edward Waiteand published in 1909.[citation needed]A difference fromMarseillesstyle decks is that Waite-Smith use scenes withesotericmeanings on the suit cards.

This article is about the use of tarot cards for divinatory and esoteric/occult purposes. For other uses, seeTarot (disambiguation).

From its humble uptake as an instrument of prophecy in France, the Tarot went on to become a thing ofhermeneuticmagicalmystical,[3]semiotic,[4]and even psychological properties. It was used byRomani peoplewhen telling fortunes,[5]as aJungianpsychological apparatus capable of tapping into absolute knowledge in the unconscious,[6]a tool for,[7]and even a tool for facilitating the Jungian process ofIndividuation.[8]

Lvi linked the ten numbered cards in each suit to the tensefiroth.

makes the first association of Tarot with cartomancy

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Despite this lack of any evidence, the belief that the tarot cards are linked to the Egyptian Book of Thoth continues in modernurban legendto the present day.

The way the cards are taken to respond to such personal inquiries is subject to various theories. Many tarot users believe that the cards are the ones providing the answers.[further explanation needed]Others would state that there aresupernaturalagents (e.g.angelsorfairies) who guide the cards. From a psychological point of view, there are those who believe that the person themselves is the one making the connections between the cards. Among these, some believe that tarot is useful either because it is a way to let ones subconscious speak (afterFreud), or because of meaningful coincidences between the situation or question at hand and the cards (synchronicity, afterJung).[27]

van Rijn, Bastiaan Benjamin.The Mind Behind the Cards

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The belief in thedivinatory meaningof the cards is closely associated with a belief in theiroccultproperties: a commonly held belief in the 18th century propagated by prominent Protestant clerics and freemasons.[2]:96One of them wasCourt De Gbelin(see below).

One of the earliest reference to Tarot triumphs, and probably the first reference to Tarot as the devils picture book, is given by a Dominican preacher in a fiery sermon against the evils of the devils instrument.[1]References to the Tarot as a social plague continue throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, but there are no indication that the cards were used for anything but games anywhere other than in Bologna.[2]As Dummett (1980: 96) notes, …it was only in the 1780s, when the practice of fortune-telling with regular playing cards had been well established for at least two decades, that anyone began to use the Tarot pack for cartomancy.

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wrote a cartomanic treatise of tarot as the Book of Thoth,

Court de Gbelin is the first to attempt to provide the correct order and nomenclature for the tarot trumps. See Michael Dummett.

Claimed the four suites represented theTetragrammaton.

lacksISBNsfor the books listed in it

Moore, Randy (January 1992). Debunking the Paranormal: We Should Teach Critical Thinking as a Necessity for Living, Not Just as a Tool for Science.

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Mlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormandoutshone even Ettiella and was the first cartomancer to people in high places, being the personal confidant ofEmpress JosephineNapoleonand other notables.[2]Lenormand used both regular playing cards, in particular thePiquetpack, as well as cards derived from Etteillas Egyptian root. She was so famous that a deck was published in her name, theGrand Jeu de Mlle Lenormand, two years after her death in 1843.

Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017

Etteillas tarot is the first cartomantic tarot, thus the broken nomenclature that bears little resemblance to that which comes before! The imagery of Ettiellas Egyptian Tarot is similar to Tarot de Marseille, but he breaks the ordering significantly putting, for example, the imagery of the Sun (traditionally triumph 19) as triumph 1. This interested in viewing the images by do so by visitingthis link

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Possibly the first of those wasAntoine Court de Gbelin, a French clergyman, who wrote that after seeing a group of women playing cards he had the idea that Tarot was not merely a game of cards but was in fact:

(34): 264280.doi10.1353/wsq.2013.0025.

De Gbelin published a dissertation on the origins of the symbolism in the Tarot in volume VIII of workLe Monde primitif. He thought the Tarot representedancient Egyptian Theology, including Isis, Osiris and Typhon. For example, he thought the card he knew as the Papesse and known today as theHigh PriestessrepresentedIsis.[10]He also related four Tarot cards to the four ChristianCardinal virtuesTemperanceJusticeStrengthandPrudence.[11]He relates The Tower to a Greek fable about avarice.[12]

The following is a comparison of the order of the trumps up to and including the A.E. Waite deck. This table is based on Dummett (1980) and actual inspection of the relevant decks.[original research?]

Although the ancientEgyptian languagehad not yet been deciphered, de Gbelin asserted the name Tarot came from the Egyptian wordsTar, path or road, and the wordRo,RosorRog, meaning King or royal, and that the Tarot literally translated to the Royal Road of Life.[13]LaterEgyptologistsfound nothing in the Egyptian language to support de Gbelinsetymologies.

, New York: Tarcher/Penguin, 2005ISBN91

Articles with unsourced statements from March 2013

(1): 7391.doi10.1080/10371397.2011.560659.

P.D. Ouspensky. The Symbolism of the Tarot: philosophy of occultism in pictures and numbers. Dover Publications. 1976

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R. Steele. A notice of the Ludus Triumphorum and Some Early Italian Card Games: With Some Remarks on the Origin of the Game of Cards, Archaeologia, vol LVII, 1900. pp. 185200

But see: Gregory, Karen (2013). Negotiating Precarity: Tarot as Spiritual Entrepreneurialism.

Related articles onsciencepsychology, andlogic

. Translated by Aleister Crowley. Red Wheel/Weiser. 2002ISBN0877280789

Images from the Grand Oracle des Dames, an early cartomantic progeny

Jung and Tarot: An Archetypal Journey

The main article onTarotgives full details of the history of Tarot cards as game-playing cards.

Psychic Blues: Confessions of a Conflicted Medium

Articles that may contain original research from March 2015

Lvi was the first to suggest that the Magus (Bagatto) was to work with the four suits.

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John Beeb. A Tarot Reading on the Possibility of Nuclear War. Psychological Perspectives: A Quarterly Journal of Jungian Thought. 16(1): 97-106. pp. 97

Sallie Nichols. The Wisdom of the Fool. Psychological Perspective: A Quarterly Journal of Jungian Thought. 5(2): 97-116. 1974

created the first corrected Tarot (supposedly fixing errors that resulted from misinterpretation and corruption through the mists of antiquity), TheGrand Ettielledeck

Tarot cards were originally used in games and are still used for that purpose in many parts of Europe.

Tarot cards have become extremely popular in Japan, where hundreds of new decks have been designed in recent years.[21]

Arcana in the Adytumby Mary K. Greer.

was an account of the creation of the world

suggested that Tarot was repository of the wisdom ofHermes Trismegistus

Inspired by de Gbelin, Lvi associated the Hebrew alphabet with theTarot trumps.

Tarotologyis the hypothetical basis for the reading ofTarotcards, a subset ofcartomancy, which is the practice of using cards to gain insight into the past, present or future by posing a question to the cards. The reasoning behind this practice ranges from believing the result is guided by a spiritual force, to belief that the cards are instruments used to tap either into acollective unconsciousor into the subjects own creative,.[citation needed]

published, under the imprint of his society, the

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In 1887 theMarquis Stanislas de Guaitamet the amateur artistOswald Wirth(1860-1943) and subsequently sponsored a production of Lvis intended deck. Guided entirely by de Guaita Wirth designed the first neo-occultist cartomantic deck (and first cartomantic deck not derived from Ettielles Egyptina deck). Known as theArcanes du Tarot kabbalistiqueit consisted of only the twenty-two major arcana.[jargon]

created the first society for Tarot cartomancy, the Socit littraire des associs libres des interprtes du livre de Thot.

Claimed the court cards represented stages of human life.

Rose Mackenberg(Historic fraudulent psychic medium investigator)

Related articles onSocial changeandParapsychology

According to Dummett Lvis notable contributions include:[2]

Interestingly, Dummett (1980) singles out Christians writing as one of the worst examples of what he callsfalse ascriptionto be found in the occult literature.

This page was last edited on 27 April 2018, at 20:59.

The asterix and the abbreviations are the actual way Court De Gbelin refers to the second essay. As Dummett (1980) notes, Mr Robin Briggs identifies the contributor as Louis-Raphael-Lucrece de Fayolle, Comte de Mellet. Louis was a brigadier, governor, and unremarkable court noble.

Text is available under the; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to theTerms of UseandPrivacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of theWikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

Dummett (1980: 120) dismissed Lvis contribution to magic as the product of an advanced state of intellectual deliquescent, but noted that Lvi made a major contribution to the history of occult lore. Occultists, magicians, and maguss all the way down to the 21st century have cited Lvi as a defining influence.[citation needed]This trend began immediately whenJean-Baptiste Pitois(1811), writing under the name Paul Christian, wroteLHomme rouge(1863) and laterHistoire de la magie, du monde surnaturel et de la fatalit travers les temps et les peuples(1870). Christian repeats and extends the mythology of the tarot and changes the names for the trumps and the suits (see table below for a list of Christians modifications to the trumps).[citation needed]Batons (wands) become Scepters, Swords become Blades, and Coins become Shekels.[18]In 1888ly StarpublishedMystres de lhoroscopewhich mostly repeats Christians modifications.[19]Its primary contribution was the introduction of the termsMajor arcanaandMinor arcana, and the numbering of the Crocodile (the Fool) XXII instead of 0.[citation needed]

. London: Duckworth, 2002.ISBN0715610147.

List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

Tarot card readings use very vague and basic ideas that any person could draw on as parts of the reading, internalizing them.[vague]Several different skeptics[who?]have found that, when performing a tarot card reading, the reader uses several different techniques, of questionable scientific validity, to aid in their reading.[citation needed]One of these for example iscold reading. Cold reading is a technique that psychics, mediums, card readers, etc. use to determine details about a person in order to convince them that they know them.

The actual source of the occult Tarot can be traced to two articles in volume eight, one written by himself, and one written by M. le C. de M.***.[14]The second has been noted to have been even more influential than Gebelins.[2]The author takes De Gebelins speculations even further, agreeing with him about the mystical origins of the Tarot in ancient Egypt, but making several additional, and influential, statements that continue to influence mass understanding of the occult tarot even to this day.[citation needed]He:

A history of the occult tarot, 1870-1970

Dictionnaire synonimique du Livre de Thot,

have discovered intact and still unknown this key of all doctrines and all philosophies of the old world… without the Tarot, he tells us, the Magic of the ancients is a closed book….

makes the first statement that the Tarot is, in fact, The Book ofThoth

makes the first statement that the Tarot is associated with theRomani People(and that the Romani people were roaming Egyptians)

Michael Dummett. The Game of Tarot. London: Duckworth, 1980.ISBN0715631225

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Many involved in occult and divinatory practices attempt to trace the Tarot toancient Egypt, divine hermetic wisdom,[9]and themysteries of Isis.

Inna Semetsky. Tarot images and spiritual education: the three Is model. International Journal of Childrens Spirituality. 16(3): 249260. 2011

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. London: Duckworth, 1980.ISBN0715631225

(1): 49.doi10.2307/4449386JSTOR4449386.

Divinatory, esoteric and occult tarot

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needs additional citations forverification

Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2016

argued that the first copy of the tarot was imprinted on leaves of gold

The first to assign divinatory meanings to the Tarot cards were(also known asEtteilla) in 1783 andMlle Marie-Anne Adelaide Lenormand(1776-1843).[15][16]According to Dummett,Etteilla:[2]

Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016

The Tarot: History, Symbolism, and Divination

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