Communitas. The Origin and Destiny of Community

Communitas. The Origin and Destiny of Community

The Community of Those Who Have Nothing in Common

Turner, V. (1974). Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Cornell University Press. pp. 273-4.

Communitas as a concept used byVictor Turnerin his study ofritualhas been criticized by anthropologists. SeeJohn EadeMichael J. SallnowsContesting the Sacred(1991)

BLANCHOT, Maurice ([1983]1988). The Unavowable Community, Station Hill Press

Initiation at the Villa of Mysteries, Pompeii, a rite of passage expressing communitas

Communitas- Wikipediacommunity development journalatMeta

Edith Turner, Victors widow and anthropologist in her own right, published in 2011[3]a definitive overview of the anthropology of communitas, outlining the concept in relation to the natural history of joy, including the nature of human experience and its narration, festivals, music and sports, work, disaster, the sacred, revolution and nonviolence, nature and spirit, and ritual and rites of passage.

, which can be applied to many utopian social models.

This page was last edited on 10 June 2018, at 21:25

Communitas- Communitas, Italian journal of sociology and economy

Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants

, tr. by Timothy Campbell, Stanford: Stanford University Press, p.7

, Indiana: Indiana University Press.Google Books Preview

Carse, James P. The Religious Case Against Belief, Penguin, New York, 2008

Turner (1969, Pg.132; see also[2]) distinguishes between:

, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1993Google Books Preview

From here it emerges thatcommunitasis the totality of persons united not by a property but precisely by an obligation or a debt; not by an addition but by a subtraction: by a lack, a limit that is configured as an onus, or even as a defective modality for him who is affected, unlike for him who is instead exempt or exempted. Here we find the final and most characteristic of the oppositions associated with (or that dominate) the alternative between public and private, those in other words that contrastcommunitastoimmunitas. Ifcommunisis he who is required to carry out the functions of an office or to the donation of a grace on the contrary, he is called immune who has to perform no office, and for that reason he remains ungrateful. He can completely preserve his own position through avacatio muneris. Whereas thecommunitasis bound by the sacrifice of thecompensatio, theimmunitasimplies the beneficiary of thedispensatio.[5]

Read the introduction from Roberto Espositos book

existential or spontaneous communitas

For more on this perspective, see alsoJean-Luc Nancys paper The Confronted Community[7]as well as his bookThe Inoperative Community.[8]See alsoMaurice Blanchots bookThe Unavowable Community(1983)[9]which is an answer toJean-Luc NancysInoperative Community.Giorgio Agambenengages in a similar argument about the concept of community in his 1990 bookThe Coming Community(translated in English byMichael Hardtin 1993).[10]Rmi Astruc, a French scholar, recently proposed in his essayNous? Laspiration la Communaut et les arts(2015),[11]to operate a distinction between Community with a capital C as the longing forcommunitasand communities (plural and small c) to name the numerous actualizations in human societies. Finally, on the American side, seeThe Community of Those Who Have Nothing in CommonbyAlphonso Lingis.[12]Christian authorAlan Hirschused the term to describe a more active, tighter-knit community in his book The Forgotten Ways: Reactivating the Missional Church.[1]

Communitas. The Origin and Destiny of Community

, which occurs as communitas is transformed from its existential state to being organized into a permanent social system due to the need for social control. The Communitas Group, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

, tr. by Timothy Campbell, Stanford: Stanford University Press, p.6

:Introduction: Nothing In Common

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Communitasis also the title of a book published in 1947 by the 20th-century American thinker and writerPaul Goodmanand his brother,Percival Goodman. Their book examines three kinds of possible societies: a society centered on consumption, a society centered on artistic and creative pursuits, and a society which maximizes human liberty. The Goodmans emphasize freedom from both coercion by a government or church and from human necessities by providing these free of cost to all citizens who do a couple of years of conscripted labor as young adults.

In 1998, Italian philosopherRoberto Espositopublished a book under the nameCommunitaschallenging the traditional understanding of this concept. It was translated in English in 2010 by Timothy Campbell. In this book, Esposito offers a very different interpretation of the concept ofcommunitasbased on a thorough etymological analysis of the word: Community isnt a property, nor is it a territory to be separated and defended against those who do not belong to it. Rather, it is a void, a debt, a gift to the other that also reminds us of our constitutive alterity with respect to ourselves.[4]He goes on with his deconstruction of the concept ofcommunitas:

Creating Communitas, a project at including two books byForbes LeslieCommunal SustainabilityandForming Tribalized Communities.

Therefore the community cannot be thought of as a body, as a corporation in which individuals are founded in a larger individual. Neither is community to be interpreted as a mutual, intersubjective recognition in which individuals are reflected in each other so as to confirm their initial identity; as a collective bond that comes at a certain point to connect individuals that before were separate. The community isnt a mode of being, much less a making of the individual subject. It isnt the subjects expansion or multiplication but its exposure to what interrupts the closing and turns it inside out: a dizziness, a syncope, a spasm in the continuity of the subject.[6]

Communitasis acommonly referring either to an unstructuredcommunityin whichpeopleare equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as aloanwordincultural anthropologyand thesocial sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was interested in the interplay between what he called social structure and antistructure;LiminalityandCommunitasare both components of antistructure.[1]

, the transient personal experience of togetherness; e.g. that which occurs during a counter-culture happening.

Olaveson, T. (2001). Collective Effervescence and Communitas: Processual Models of Ritual and Society in Emile Durkheim and Victor Turner. Dialectical Anthropology, 26, pp. 105.

, which was edited at that time by Christian Bourgois. Cf. Jean-Luc Nancy,

Nous? Laspiration la Communaut et les arts

Communitas is an acute point of community. It takes community to the next level and allows the whole of the community to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage. This brings everyone onto an equal level: even if you are higher in position, you have been lower and you know what that is.

Eade & Sallnow, Contesting the Sacred (1991)

Turner, VictorRituals and Communitas. Creative Resistance. 26 Nov. 2005

Communitas. The Origin and Destiny of Community

, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. This essay was first published in the French magazine

Communitas refers to an unstructured state in which all members of a community are equal allowing them to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage. Communitas is characteristic of people experiencingliminalitytogether. This term is used to distinguish the modality of socialrelationshipfrom an area of common living. There is more than one distinction betweenstructureand communitas. The most familiar is the difference ofsecularandsacred. Every social position has something sacred about it. This sacred component is acquired duringrites of passages, through the changing of positions. Part of this sacredness is achieved through the transient humility learned in these phases, this allows people to reach a higher position.

Communitas and classical Greek ritual theatre on link)

NANCY, Jean-Luc ([2001]2003).The Confronted Community,

Communitas: The Anthropology of Collective Joy

For the book by Percival and Paul Goodman, seeCommunitas (book).

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by Roberto Esposito, translated by Timothy C. Campbell

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