Divination Card

Water well

Treadle pump. Dev.practicalaction.org

Association, American Water Works (2003).

Wood-lined wells are known from the early NeolithicLinear Pottery culture, for example in Kckhoven (an outlying centre ofErkelenz), dated 5090BC andEythra, dated 5200BC in Schletz (an outlying centre ofAsparn an der Zaya) inAustria.1

Kitchen & Bath Residential Construction and Systems

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(3rd ed.). CRC Press (published November 1, 2012). p.31.ISBN48.

St. Patricks Well. Umbriatravel.com

Well water for personal use is often filtered withreverse osmosiswater processors; this process can remove very small particles. A simple, effective way of killing microorganisms is to bring the water to a full boil for one to three minutes, depending on location. A household well contaminated by microorganisms can initially be treated by shock chlorination using bleach, generating concentrations hundreds of times greater than found in community water systems; however, this will not fix any structural problems that led to the contamination and generally requires some expertise and testing for effective application.15

Association), NKBA (National Kitchen and Bath (2013-10-29).

Man cleaning a well inYaoundCameroon.

Drilled wells can get water from a much deeper level than dug wells canoften down to several hundred metres.13

Forest Hydrology: An Introduction to Water and Forests

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At the bottom of wells, based on formation, a screening device, filter pack, slotted casing, or open bore hole is left to allow the flow of water into the well. Constructed screens are typically used in unconsolidated formations (sands, gravels, etc.), allowing water and a percentage of the formation to pass through the screen. Allowing some material to pass through creates a large area filter out of the rest of the formation, as the amount of material present to pass into the well slowly decreases and is removed from the well. Rock wells are typically cased with a PVC liner/casing and screen or slotted casing at the bottom, this is mostly present just to keep rocks from entering the pump assembly. Some wells utilize afilter packmethod, where an undersized screen or slotted casing is placed inside the well and a filter medium is packed around the screen, between the screen and the borehole or casing. This allows the water to be filtered of unwanted materials before entering the well and pumping zone.

Self-supply of water and sanitation

Articles needing additional references from October 2017

Sustainable Groundwater Development theme of the Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN)

Hand pump to pump water from a well in a village near Chennai in India, where the well water might be polluted by nearbypit latrines

Drilled wells are usually cased with a factory-made pipe, typicallysteel(in air rotary or cable tool drilling) orplasticPVC(in mud rotary wells, also present in wells drilled into solid rock). The casing is constructed by welding, either chemically or thermally, segments of casing together. If the casing is installed during the drilling, most drills will drive the casing into the ground as the bore hole advances, while some newer machines will actually allow for the casing to be rotated and drilled into the formation in a similar manner as the bit advancing just below. PVC or plastic is typically welded and then lowered into the drilled well, vertically stacked with their ends nested and either glued or splined together. The sections of casing are usually 6 metres (20ft) or more in length, and 6 to 12in (15 to 30cm) in diameter, depending on the intended use of the well and local groundwater conditions.

Education of the general population in society also plays an important role in protecting drinking water.citation needed

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The potential for soil salination is a large risk when choosing the placement of water wells. Soil salination is caused when the water table of the soil drops over time and salt begins to accumulate. In turn, the increased amount of salt begins to dry the soil out. This is a very detrimental problem because the increased level of salt in the soil can result in the degradation of soil and can be very harmful to vegetation.citation needed

, are large diameter (greater than 15cm in diameter) cased (metal, plastic, or concrete) water wells, constructed for extracting water from the aquifer by apump(if the well is notartesian).

A dug well in a village inFaryab ProvinceAfghanistan.

Well, Historical Village, Bhaini Sahib,LudhianaPunjab, India

Rotary drilling machines use a segmented steel drilling string, typically made up of 6m (20ft) sections of galvanized steel tubing that are threaded together, with abitor other drilling device at the bottom end. Some rotary drilling machines are designed to install (by driving or drilling) a steel casing into the well in conjunction with the drilling of the actual bore hole. Air and/or water is used as a circulation fluid to displace cuttings and cool bits during the drilling. Another form of rotary-style drilling, termedmud rotary, makes use of a specially made mud, or drilling fluid, which is constantly being altered during the drill so that it can consistently create enough hydraulic pressure to hold the side walls of the bore hole open, regardless of the presence of a casing in the well. Typically, boreholes drilled into solid rock are not cased until after the drilling process is completed, regardless of the machinery used.

Committee on Environmental Health; Committee on Infectious Diseases (2009). Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Healthy Water – Water WellsSite covering well basics, guidelines for proper siting and location of wells to avoid contamination, well testing, diseases related to wells, emergency well treatment and other topics.

An automated water well system powered by a submersible pump.

Well Construction Technical Resources for NGOs

A risk with the placement of water wells issoil salinationwhich occurs when the water table of the soil begins to drop and salt begins to accumulate as the soil begins to dry out.18Another environmental problem that is very prevalent in water well drilling is the potential for methane to seep through.

(4): 299313.doi10.1080/46ISSN0191-9512.

Leather bucket used for the water well.

Practical Answers Handpumps. Practicalaction.org

are sunk through an impermeable stratum into an aquifer that is sandwiched between two impermeable strata (aquitards or aquicludes). The majority of deep aquifers are classified as artesian because the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the level of the top of the aquifer. If the hydraulic head in a confined well is higher than the land surface it is a flowingartesian well(named afterArtoisinFrance).

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Eratosthenesfirst calculated the radius of the Earth in about 230BC by comparing shadows in wells during the summer solstice.citation needed

Low levels of methane in drinking water are not considered toxic. When methane seeps into a water supply, it is commonly referred to as methane migration. This can be caused by old natural gas wells near water well systems becoming abandoned and no longer monitored.citation needed

An automated water well system powered by a jet-pump.

Cleanup ofcontaminated groundwatertends to be very costly. Effectiveremediation of groundwateris generally very difficult. Contamination of groundwater from surface and subsurface sources can usually be dramatically reduced by correctly centering the casing during construction and filling the casingannuluswith an appropriate sealing material. The sealing material (grout) should be placed from immediately above the production zone back to surface, because, in the absence of a correctly constructed casing seal, contaminated fluid can travel into the well through the casing annulus. Centering devices are important (usually 1 per length of casing or at maximum intervals of 9m) to ensure that the grouted annular space is of even thickness.citation neededUpon the construction of a new test well, it is considered best practice to invest in a complete battery of chemical and biological tests on the well water in question. Point-of-use treatment is available for individual properties and treatment plants are often constructed for municipal water supplies that suffer from contamination. Most of these treatment methods involve thefiltrationof the contaminants of concern, and additional protection may be garnered by installing well-casing screens only at depths where contamination is not present.citation needed

(3rd ed.). CRC Press (published November 1, 2012). p.31.ISBN48.

Village pump redirects here. For the set of pages used to discuss the technical issues, policies, and operations of Wikipedia, seeWikipedia:Village pump.

Some of the earliest evidence of water wells are located in China. The neolithic Chinese discovered and made extensive use of deep drilled groundwater for drinking. The Chinese textThe Book of Changes, originally a divination text of the Western Zhou dynasty (1046 -771 BC), contains an entry describing how the ancient Chinese maintained their wells and protected their sources of water.2Archaeological evidence and old Chinese documents reveal that the prehistoric and ancient Chinese had the aptitude and skills for digging deep water wells for drinking water as early as 6000 to 7000 years ago. A well excavated at theHemeduexcavation site was believed to have been built during the neolithic era.3The well was cased by four rows of logs with a square frame attached to them at the top of the well. 60 additional tile wells southwest of Beijing are also believed to have been built around 600 BC for drinking and irrigation.45

Lifewater International Technical Library

(12): e51374.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0051374PMC

Further information:Groundwater pollution

A dug well, largeshadoof(well sweep), and old barn inMarkowa, Poland

After the filtration process, it is common to implement anUltraviolet(UV) system to kill pathogens in the water. UV light effects the DNA of the pathogen by UV-C photons breaking through the cell wall. UV disinfection has been gaining popularity in the past decades as it is a chemical free method of water treatment.17

US Geological Survey Ground water: Wells

US Geological Survey Water Science Pictures Flowing Artesian Well

Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management Toolbox

Before excavation, information about the geology, water table depth, seasonal fluctuations, recharge area and rate must be found. This work is typically done by ahydrogeologist, or a groundwater surveyor using a variety of tools including electro-seismic surveying,14any available information from nearby wells, geologic maps, and sometimesgeophysical imaging.

Water well drilling inEin Hemed, nearJerusalemcirca 1964

Drilled wells can be excavated by simple hand drilling methods (augering, sludging, jetting, driving, hand percussion) or machine drilling (rotary, percussion, down the hole hammer). Deeprock rotary drilling method is most common. Rotary can be used in 90% of formation types.

A special type of water well may be constructed adjacent to freshwater lakes or streams. Commonly called a collector well but sometimes referred to by the trade name Ranney well orRanney collector, this type of well involves sinking a caisson vertically below the top of the aquifer and then advancing lateral collectors out of the caisson and beneath the surface water body. Pumping from within the caisson induces infiltration of water from the surface water body into the aquifer, where it is collected by the collector well laterals and conveyed into the caisson where it can be pumped to the ground surface.citation needed

Drilled wells with electric pumps are used throughout the world, typically in rural or sparsely populated areas, though many urban areas are supplied partly by municipal wells. Most shallow well drilling machines are mounted on large trucks, trailers, or tracked vehicle carriages. Water wells typically range from 3to 18 metres (1060ft) deep, but in some areas can go deeper than 900 metres (3,000ft).citation needed

Many incidents in the Bible take place around wells, such as the finding of a wife forIsaacin Genesis andJesuss talk with the Samaritan woman in the Gospels.citation needed

Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of water supply and sanitation

Most of thebacteriavirusesparasites, andfungithat contaminate well water comes fromfecal materialfrom humans and other animals, for example from on-sitesanitationsystems (such aspit latrinesandseptic tanks). Common bacterial contaminants includeE. coli,Salmonella,Shigella, andCampylobacter jejuni. Common viral contaminants includenorovirus,sapovirus,rotavirus,enteroviruses, andhepatitis AandE. Parasites includeGiardia lamblia,Cryptosporidium,Cyclospora cayetanensis, andmicrosporidia.15

Cable toolwater well drilling rig inKimball, West Virginia, USA.

Two broad classes of well are shallow or unconfined wells completed within the uppermost saturatedaquiferat that location, and deep or confined wells, sunk through an impermeable stratum into an aquifer beneath. A collector well can be constructed adjacent to a freshwater lake or stream with water percolating through the intervening material. The site of a well can be selected by ahydrogeologist, or groundwater surveyor. Water may be pumped or hand drawn. Impurities from the surface can easily reach shallow sources and contamination of the supply by pathogens or chemical contaminants needs to be avoided. Well water typically contains more minerals in solution than surface water and may require treatment before being potable.Soil salinationcan occur as the water table falls and the surrounding soil begins to dry out. Another environmental problem is the potential formethaneto seep into the water.

. Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

The quality of the well water can be significantly increased by lining the well, sealing the well head, fitting a self-priming hand pump, constructing an apron, ensuring the area is kept clean and free from stagnant water and animals, moving sources of contamination (pit latrines, garbage pits,on-site sewer systems) and carrying out hygiene education. The well should be cleaned with 1% chlorine solution after construction and periodically every 6 months.citation needed

A well constructed for pumping groundwater can be used passively as a monitoring well and a small diameter well can be pumped, but this distinction by use is common.citation needed

Tegel W, Elburg R, Hakelberg D, Stäuble H, Bntgen U (2012).Early Neolithic Water Wells Reveal the Worlds Oldest Wood Architecture.

Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016

Stone Age wells found in Cyprus. BBC News.

(2nd ed.). Avebury, Cranfield University.ISBN1-85628-984-2.

Minimum distances and soil percolation requirements between sewage disposal sites and water wells need to be observed. Rules regarding the design and installation of private and municipal septic systems take all these factors into account so that nearby drinking water sources are protected.

Shallow pumping wells can often supplydrinking waterat a very low cost. However, impurities from the surface easily reach shallow sources, which leads to a greater risk of contamination for these wells compared to deeper wells. Contaminated wells can lead to the spread of variouswaterborne diseases. Dug and driven wells are relatively easy to contaminate; for instance, most dug wells are unreliable in the majority of the United States.15

Meulemans, C. C. E. (1987-09-01). The Basic Principles of UVDisinfection of Water.

Du Preez, Michael.ELECTRO-SEISMIC SURVEYS APPLIED TO MODDELING OF GROUNDWATER FLOW SYSTEMS

. American Water Works Association.ISBN95.

Vague or ambiguous time from May 2016

Waterborne diseasescan be spread via a well which is contaminated with fecal pathogens frompit latrines

Koon, Wee Kek (July 25, 2015).How the ancient Chinese looked after their drinking water.

Surface contamination of wells in the United States is typically controlled by the use of asurface seal. A large hole is drilled to a predetermined depth or to a confining formation (clay or bedrock, for example), and then a smaller hole for the well is completed from that point forward. The well is typically cased from the surface down into the smaller hole with a casing that is the same diameter as that hole. The annular space between the large bore hole and the smaller casing is filled withbentonite clay, concrete, or other sealant material. This creates an impermeable seal from the surface to the next confining layer that keeps contaminants from traveling down the outer sidewalls of the casing or borehole and into theaquifer. In addition, wells are typically capped with either an engineered well cap or seal that vents air through a screen into the well, but keeps insects, small animals, and unauthorized persons from accessing the well.

A Chinese ceramic model of a well with a waterpulleysystem, excavated from a tomb of theHan Dynasty(202 BC – 220 AD) period

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View into a hand-dug well cased with concrete rings; Ouelessebougou, Mali.

Kuhn, Oliver (2004-06-30).Ancient Chinese Drilling.

Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014

Several minerals are also contaminants, includingleadleached from brass fittings or old lead pipes,chromium VIfrom electroplating and other sources, naturally occurringarsenicradon, anduraniumall of which can cause cancerand naturally occurringfluoride, which is desirable in low quantities to preventtooth decay, but can causedental fluorosisin higher concentrations.15

Methane, an asphyxiant, is a chemical compound that is the main component of natural gas. When methane is introduced into a confined space, it displaces oxygen, reducing oxygen concentration to a level low enough to pose a threat to humans and other aerobic organisms but still high enough for a risk ofspontaneousor externally caused explosion. This potential for explosion is what poses such a danger in regards to the drilling and placement of water wells.citation needed

Wells have been traditionally sunk by hand digging as is the case in rural developing areas. These wells are inexpensive and low-tech as they use mostly manual labour and the structure can be lined with brick or stone as the excavation proceeds. A more modern method calledcaissoninguses pre-cast reinforced concrete well rings that are lowered into the hole. Driven wells can be created in unconsolidated material with a well hole structure, which consists of a hardened drive point and a screen of perforated pipe, after which a pump is installed to collect the water. Deeper wells can be excavated by hand drilling methods or machine drilling, using abitin a borehole. Drilled wells are usually cased with a factory-made pipe composed of steel or plastic. Drilled wells can access water at much greater depths than dug wells.

Well holes should be covered to prevent loose debris, animals, animal excrement, and wind-blown foreign matter from falling into the hole and decomposing. The cover should be able to be in place at all times, including when drawing water from the well. A suspended roof over an open hole helps to some degree, but ideally the cover should be tight fitting and fully enclosing, with only a screened air vent.citation needed

Until recent centuries, all artificial wells werepumplesshand-dug wells of varying degrees of sophistication, and they remain a very important source ofpotable waterin some rural developing areas where they are routinely dug and used today. Their indispensability has produced a number of literary references, literal and figurative, to them, including the reference to the incident ofJesusmeeting a woman atJacobs well (John4:6) in the bible and theabout a cat in a well.

Soil salination by placement of water wells mentioned in India. Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. 2002-10-17

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needs additional citations forverification

Lately,when?however, the described wells/pumps are no longer very efficient and can be replaced by eitherhandpumpsortreadle pumps. Another alternative is the use of self-dug wells, electrical deep-well pumps (for higher depths).Appropriate technologyorganizations asPractical Actionare nowwhen?supplying information on how to build/set-up (DIY) handpumps andtreadle pumpsin practice.1920

The oldest form of drilling machinery is thecable tool, still used today. Specifically designed to raise and lower a bit into the bore hole, thespuddingof the drill causes the bit to be raised and dropped onto the bottom of the hole, and the design of the cable causes the bit to twist at approximately 14revolution per drop, thereby creating a drilling action. Unlike rotary drilling, cable tool drilling requires the drilling action to be stopped so that the bore hole can be bailed or emptied of drilled cuttings.

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There are two broad classes of drilled-well types, based on the type ofaquiferthe well is in:

are completed in the uppermost saturated aquifer at that location (the upper unconfined aquifer).

Some chemicals are commonly present in water wells at levels that are not toxic, but can cause other problems.Calciumandmagnesiumcause what is known ashard water, which can precipitate and clog pipes or burn out water heaters.Ironandmanganesecan appear as dark flecks that stain clothing and plumbing, and can promote the growth ofiron and manganese bacteriathat can form slimy black colonies that clog pipes.15

Chemical contamination is a common problem with groundwater.16Nitratesfromsewagesewage sludgeorfertilizerare a particular problem for babies and young children. Pollutant chemicals includepesticidesandvolatile organic compoundsfromgasolinedry-cleaning, the fuel additivemethyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE), andperchloratefrom rocket fuel, airbag inflators, and other artificial and natural sources.citation needed

, are often smaller diameter wells used to monitor the hydraulic head or sample the groundwater for chemical constituents. Piezometers are monitoring wells completed over a very short section of aquifer. Monitoring wells can also be completed at multiple levels, allowing discrete samples or measurements to be made at different vertical elevations at the same map location.

Ashkenazi, Eli (November 9, 2012).Ancient Well Reveals Secrets of First Jezreel Valley Farmers.

Camel drawing water from a well,Djerbaisland, Tunisia

(6): 15991605.doi10.1542/peds.2009-0751PMID19482772.

.St. Paul: Johnson Filtration Systems.ISBN978-0-9616456-0-1.

Hand-dug wells are inexpensive and low tech (compared to drilling) as they use mostly manual labour to access groundwater in rural locations in developing countries. They may be built with a high degree of community participation, or by local entrepreneurs who specialize in hand-dug wells. They have been successfully excavated to 60 metres (200ft). They have low operational and maintenance costs, in part because water can be extracted by hand bailing, without a pump. The water is often coming from an aquifer or groundwater, and can be easily deepened, which may be necessary if the ground water level drops, by telescoping the lining further down into the aquifer. The yield of existing hand dug wells may be improved by deepening or introducing vertical tunnels or perforated pipes.

A dug well in a village inKerala, India.

A section of a stainless steel screen well.

A water well system with a pressurized cistern.

Two additional broad classes of well types may be distinguished, based on the use of the well:

Main article:History of water supply and sanitation

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Hand-dug wells are excavations with diameters large enough to accommodate one or more people with shovels digging down to below thewater table. The excavation is braced horizontally to avoid landslide or erosion endangering the people digging. They can be lined withlaid stonesor brick; extending this lining upwards above the ground surface to form a wall around the well serves to reduce both contamination and injuries by falling into the well. A more modern method calledcaissoninguses reinforced concrete or plain concrete pre-cast well rings that are lowered into the hole. A well-digging team digs under a cutting ring and the well column slowly sinks into theaquifer, whilst protecting the team from collapse of the well bore.

Drilled wells are typically created using either top-head rotary style, table rotary, or cable tool drilling machines, all of which use drilling stems that are turned to create a cutting action in the formation, hence the termdrilling.

This page was last edited on 8 June 2018, at 19:23

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Woodingdeanwell, hand-dug between 1858 and 1862, is claimed to be the worlds deepest hand-dug well at 392 metres (1,285ft).10TheBig WellinGreensburg, Kansasis billed as the worlds largest hand-dug well, at 109 feet (33m) deep and 32 feet (9.8m) in diameter. However, theWell of Josephin theCairo Citadelat 280 feet (85m) deep and thePozzo di S. Patrizio(St. Patricks Well) built in 1527 inOrvieto, Italy, at 61 metres (200ft) deep by 13 metres (43ft) wide11are both larger by volume.

Drawbacks to hand-dug wells are numerous. It can be impractical to hand dig wells in areas where hard rock is present, and they can be time-consuming to dig and line even in favourable areas. Because they exploit shallow aquifers, the well may be susceptible to yield fluctuations and possible contamination from surface water, including sewage. Hand dug well construction generally requires the use of a well trained construction team, and the capital investment for equipment such as concrete ring moulds, heavy lifting equipment, well shaft formwork, motorized de-watering pumps, and fuel can be large for people in developing countries. Construction of hand dug wells can be dangerous due to collapse of the well bore, falling objects and asphyxiation, including from dewatering pump exhaust fumes.

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Driven wells may be very simply created in unconsolidated material with awell hole structure, which consists of a hardened drive point and a screen (perforated pipe). The point is simply hammered into the ground, usually with a tripod anddriver, with pipe sections added as needed. A driver is a weighted pipe that slides over the pipe being driven and is repeatedly dropped on it. Whengroundwateris encountered, the well is washed of sediment and a pump installed.12

Springsand wells have had cultural significance since prehistoric times, leading to the foundation of towns such asWellsandBathinSomerset. Interest in health benefits led to the growth ofspa townsincluding many withwellsin their name, examples beingLlandrindod WellsandRoyal Tunbridge Wells.citation needed

Forest Hydrology: An Introduction to Water and Forests

Sakieh explication/difference vs Sakia. m

Awater wellis an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to accessgroundwaterin undergroundaquifers. The well water is drawn by apump, or using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by hand. Wells were first constructed at least eight thousand years ago and historically vary in construction from a simple scoop in the sediment of a dry watercourse to thestepwellsof India, theqanatsof Iran, and theshadoofsandsakiehsof India. Placing a lining in the well shaft helps create stability and linings of wood or wickerwork date back at least as far as theIron Age.

InEgyptshadoofsandsakiehsare used.67When compared to each other however, the Sakkieh is much more efficient, as it can bring up water from a depth of 10 metres (versus the 3 metres of the shadoof). The Sakieh is the Egyptian version of theNoria. Some of the worlds oldest known wells, located in Cyprus, date to 7000-8500 BC.8Two wells from the Neolithic period, around 6500 BC, have been discovered in Israel. One is in Atlit, on the northern coast of Israel, and the other is the Jezreel Valley.9

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